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Assignment: Ethical and Legal Implications of Prescribing Drugs At least 3 citat

Assignment: Ethical and Legal Implications of Prescribing Drugs At least 3 citations and references. Scenario: As a nurse practitioner you prescribe medications for your patients. You make an error when prescribing medication to a 5-year-old patient. Rather than dosing him appropriately you prescribe a dose suitable for an adult. What type of drug should you prescribe based on your patients diagnosis? How much of the drug should the patient receive? How often should the drug be administered? When should the drug not be prescribed? Are there individual patient factors that could create complications when taking the drug? Should you be prescribing drugs to this patient? How might different state regulations affect the prescribing of this drug to this patient? These are some of the questions you might consider when selecting a treatment plan for a patient. As an advanced practice nurse prescribing drugs you are held accountable for peoples lives every day. Patients and their families will often place trust in you because of your position. With this trust comes power and responsibility as well as an ethical and legal obligation to do no harm. It is important that you are aware of current professional legal and ethical standards for advanced practice nurses with prescriptive authority. Additionally it is important to ensure that the treatment plans and administration/prescribing of drugs is in accordance with the regulations of the state in which you practice. Understanding how these regulations may affect the prescribing of certain drugs in different states may have a significant impact on your patients treatment plan. ***In this Assignment you explore ethical and legal implications of scenarios and consider how to appropriately respond. To Prepare · Review the Resources for this module and consider the legal and ethical implications of prescribing prescription drugs disclosure and nondisclosure. · Review the scenario assigned by your Instructor for this Assignment. · Search specific laws and standards for prescribing prescription drugs and for addressing medication errors for your state or region and reflect on these as you review the scenario assigned by your Instructor. · Consider the ethical and legal implications of the scenario for all stakeholders involved such as the prescriber pharmacist patient and patients family. · Think about two strategies that you as an advanced practice nurse would use to guide your ethically and legally responsible decision-making in this scenario including whether you would disclose any medication errors. Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following: · Explain the ethical and legal implications of the scenario you selected on all stakeholders involved such as the prescriber pharmacist patient and patients family. · Describe strategies to address disclosure and nondisclosure as identified in the scenario you selected. Be sure to reference laws specific to your state. · Explain two strategies that you as an advanced practice nurse would use to guide your decision making in this scenario including whether you would disclose your error. Be sure to justify your explanation. · Explain the process of writing prescriptions including strategies to minimize medication errors. Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page introduction summary and references. The College of Nursing Writing Template with Instructions provided at the Walden Writing Center offers an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates/general#s-lg-box-20293632). All papers submitted must use this formatting. RUBRIC AND READINGS Excellent Good Fair Poor Explain the ethical and legal implications of the scenario you selected on all stakeholders involved such as the prescriber pharmacist patient and the patients family. 23 (23%) “ 25 (25%) The response accurately and thoroughly explains in detail the ethical and legal implications of the scenario selected on all stakeholders involved. The response includes accurate clear and detailed explanations as to how these implications affect the prescriber pharmacist patient and the patients family. 20 (20%) “ 22 (22%) The response explains the ethical and legal implications of the scenario selected on all stakeholders involved. The response includes accurate explanations as to how these implications affect the prescriber pharmacist patient and the patients family. 18 (18%) “ 19 (19%) The response inaccurately or vaguely explains the ethical and legal implications of the scenario selected for all stakeholders involved. The response includes vague explanations as to how these implications affect the prescriber pharmacist patient and the patients family. 0 (0%) “ 17 (17%) The response vaguely and inaccurately explains the ethical and legal implications of the scenario selected for all stakeholders involved or the response is missing. The response vaguely and inaccurately explains how these implications affect the prescriber pharmacist patient and the patients family or is missing. Describe strategies to address disclosure and nondisclosure as identified in the scenario selected. Be sure to reference laws specific to your state. 18 (18%) “ 20 (20%) An accurate detailed and clear description of strategies to address disclosure and nondisclosure as identified in the scenario selected is provided. The response includes specific detailed and accurate reference to state laws related to the scenario. 16 (16%) “ 17 (17%) An accurate description of strategies to address disclosure and nondisclosure as identified in the scenario selected is provided. The response includes accurate reference to state laws related to the scenario. 14 (14%) “ 15 (15%) A vague or inaccurate description of strategies to address disclosure and nondisclosure as identified in the scenario selected is provided. The response includes inaccurate or vague reference to state laws related to the scenario. 0 (0%) “ 13 (13%) A vague and inaccurate description of strategies to address disclosure and nondisclosure as identified in the scenario selected is provided or is missing. The response includes vague and inaccurate reference to state laws related to the scenario or is missing. Explain two strategies that you as an advanced practice nurse would use to guide your decision making in this scenario including whether you would disclose your error. Be sure to justify your explanation. 18 (18%) “ 20 (20%) The response accurately and thoroughly explains in detail at least two strategies that an advanced practice nurse would use to guide decision making in the scenario. The response accurately and completely explains whether they would disclose the error including an accurate detailed and clear justification for the explanation provided. 16 (16%) “ 17 (17%) The response accurately explains at least two strategies that an advanced practice nurse would use to guide decision making in the scenario. The response accurately explains whether they would disclose the error including an accurate justification for the explanation provided. 14 (14%) “ 15 (15%) The response inaccurately or vaguely explains at least two strategies that an advanced practice nurse would use to guide decision making in the scenario or only explains one strategy. The response inaccurately or vaguely explains whether they would disclose the error including a justification that is vague inaccurate or misaligned to the explanation provided. 0 (0%) “ 13 (13%) The response inaccurately and vaguely explains only one strategy that an advanced practice nurse would use to guide decision making in the scenario or is missing. The response inaccurately and vaguely explains whether they would disclose the error with no justification provided or is missing. Explain the process of writing prescriptions including strategies to minimize medication errors. 18 (18%) “ 20 (20%) The response provides an accurate detailed and thorough explanation of the process of writing prescriptions including detailed strategies to minimize medication errors. 16 (16%) “ 17 (17%) The response provides an accurate explanation of the process of writing prescriptions including some strategies to minimize medication errors. 14 (14%) “ 15 (15%) The response provides an inaccurate or vague explanation of the process of writing prescriptions including inaccurate or vague strategies to minimize medication errors. 0 (0%) “ 13 (13%) The response provides an inaccurate and vague explanation of the process of writing prescriptions including inaccurate and vague strategies to minimize medication errors or is missing. Written Expression and Formatting “ Paragraph Development and Organization: Paragraphs make clear points that support well developed ideas flow logically and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused“neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance. 5 (5%) “ 5 (5%) Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow continuity and clarity. 4 (4%) “ 4 (4%) Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow continuity and clarity 80% of the time. 3.5 (3.5%) “ 3.5 (3.5%) Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow continuity and clarity 60%“79% of the time. 0 (0%) “ 3 (3%) Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow continuity and clarity less than 60% of the time. Written Expression and Formatting “ English writing standards: Correct grammar mechanics and proper punctuation 5 (5%) “ 5 (5%) Uses correct grammar spelling and punctuation with no errors 4 (4%) “ 4 (4%) Contains a few (1“2) grammar spelling and punctuation errors 3.5 (3.5%) “ 3.5 (3.5%) Contains several (3“4) grammar spelling and punctuation errors 0 (0%) “ 3 (3%) Contains many (≥ 5) grammar spelling and punctuation errors that interfere with the readers understanding Written Expression and Formatting “ The paper follows correct APA format for title page headings font spacing margins indentations page numbers running head parenthetical/in-text citations and reference list. 5 (5%) “ 5 (5%) Uses correct APA format with no errors 4 (4%) “ 4 (4%) Contains a few (1“2) APA format errors 3.5 (3.5%) “ 3.5 (3.5%) Contains several (3“4) APA format errors 0 (0%) “ 3 (3%) Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors READINGS Rosenthal L. D. & Burchum J. R. (2018). Lehnes pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice providers. St. Louis MO: Elsevier. · Chapter 1 Prescriptive Authority (pp. 1“3) · Chapter 2 Rational Drug Selection and Prescription Writing (pp. 5“9) · Chapter 3 Promoting Positive Outcomes of Drug Therapy (pp. 11“16) · Chapter 4 Pharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics and Drug Interactions (pp. 17“40) · Chapter 5 Adverse Drug Reactions and Medical Errors (pp. 41“49) · Chapter 6 Individual Variation in Drug Response (pp. 51“56) American Geriatrics Society 2019 Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel. (2019). American Geriatrics Society 2019 updated AGS Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 67(4) 674“694. doi:10.1111/jgs.15767 American Geriatrics Society 2019 updated AGS Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults by American Geriatrics Society in Journal of the American Geriatrics Society Vol. 67/Issue 4. Copyright 2019 by Blackwell Publishing. Reprinted by permission of Blackwell Publishing via the Copyright Clearance Center. This article is an update to the Beers Criteria which includes lists of potentially inappropriate medications to be avoided in older adults as well as newly added criteria that lists select drugs that should be avoided or have their dose adjusted based on the individuals kidney function and select drug-drug interactions documented to be associated with harms in older adults. Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.-a). Code of federal regulations. Retrieved February 1 2019 from https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/21cfr/cfr/1300/1300_01.htm This website outlines the code of federal regulations for prescription drugs. Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.-b). Mid-level practitioners authorization by state. Retrieved May 13 2019 from http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugreg/practioners/index.html This website outlines the schedules for controlled substances including prescriptive authority for each schedule. Drug Enforcement Administration. (2006). Practitioners manual. Retrieved from http://www.legalsideofpain.com/uploads/pract_manual090506.pdf This manual is a resource for practitioners who prescribe dispense and administer controlled substances. It provides information on general requirements security issues recordkeeping prescription requirements and addiction treatment programs. Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.-c). Registration. Retrieved February 1 2019 from https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugreg/index.html This website details key aspects of drug registration. Fowler M. D. M. & American Nurses Association. (2015). Guide to the Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements: Development Interpretation and Application (2nd ed.). Silver Spring Maryland: American Nurses Association. This resource introduces the code of ethics for nurses and highlights critical aspects for ethical guideline development interpretation and application in practice. Institute for Safe Medication Practices. (2017). List of error-prone abbreviations symbols and dose designations. Retrieved from https://www.ismp.org/recommendations/error-prone-abbreviations-list This website provides a list of prescription-writing abbreviations that might lead to misinterpretation as well as suggestions for preventing resulting errors. Ladd E. & Hoyt A. (2016). Shedding light on nurse practitioner prescribing. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners 12(3) 166“173. doi:10.1016/j.nurpra.2015.09.17 This article provides NPs with information regarding state-based laws for NP prescribing. Sabatino J. A. Pruchnicki M. C. Sevin A. M. Barker E. Green C. G. & Porter K. (2017). Improving prescribing practices: A pharmacistled educational intervention for nurse practitioner students. Journal of the American Association ofNursePractitioners 29(5) 248“254. doi:10.1002/2327-6924.12446 The authors of this article assess the impact of a pharmacistled educational intervention on family nurse practitioner (FNP) students prescribing skills perception of preparedness to prescribe and perception of pharmacist as collaborator.]

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